Saturday, March 14, 2020
Social Worker Burnout Studied Essays Social Worker Burnout Studied Essay Social Worker Burnout Studied Essay but recent research in the field of injury has identified emphasiss alone to that work. These emphasiss have been conceptualized as vicarious injury ( McCann A ; Pearlman, 1990b ; Pearlman A ; Saakvitne, 1995a, 1995b ) . To day of the month, most research has focused on the single features thought to lend to vicarious injury. There has been less focal point on the organisational constructions that may lend. In this article, we draw on the research on organisational correlatives of burnout as a background for analyzing the research on vicarious injury and so sketch assorted organisational schemes suggested by practicians working with trauma subsisters to forestall vicarious injury. This treatment is informed by a qualitative survey of counsellors working with victims of domestic force ( Bell, 1998, 1999 ) that suggested the importance of the work environment, among other issues, in the development of vicarious injury. Citati ons by counsellors from that survey will be used to exemplify the treatment. Organizational Correlates of Burnout Maslach ( 1993 ) described burnout as holding three dimensions: ( a ) emotional exhaustion ; ( B ) depersonalisation, defined as a negative attitude towards clients, a personal withdrawal, or loss of ideals ; and ( degree Celsius ) reduced personal achievement and committedness to the profession. Burnout has been conceptualized as a procedure instead than a status or province, and some have theorized that it progresses consecutive through each of these dimensions ( Maslach, 1993 ) . Maslach and others have examined the person, interpersonal, and organisational features that contribute to burnout. Of peculiar involvement to this treatment is the determination that organisations can either promote occupation satisfaction or contribute to burnout ( Soderfeldt, Soderfeldt, A ; Warg, 1995 ) . Unsupportive disposal, deficiency of professional challenge, low wages, and troubles encountered in supplying client services are prognostic of higher burnout rates ( Arches, 1991 ; Beck, 1987 ; Him le, Jayaratne, A ; Thyness, 1986 ) . Individual staff members suffer, and the resulting loss of experient staff can decrease the quality of client services ( Arches, 1991 ) . This research has helped place organisational supports that could be effectual in buffering or interceding burnout and point to workplace features that may besides forestall vicarious injury. Vicarious Trauma Recently, the occupational emphasis of societal workers working with trauma subsisters has begun to have attending ( Cunningham, 1999 ; Dalton, 2001 ; Regehr A ; Cadell, 1999 ) . Some writers are get downing to propose that injury theory has of import public-service corporation in understanding the burnout experience of societal workers working in kid protection and with HIV-infected populations ( Horwitz, 1998 ; Wade, Beckerman, A ; Stein, 1996 ) . Many theoreticians have speculated that the emotional impact of this type of traumatic stuff is contagious and can be transmitted through the procedure of empathy ( Figley, 1995 ; Pearlman A ; Saakvitne, 1995a ; Stamm, 1995 ) , as in this illustration from an experient societal worker speaking about reding adult females in a household service bureau: Some times after a session, I will be traumatized .I will experience over whelmed, and I can retrieve a peculiar state of affairs with a sexually abused individual where I I merely did nt desire to hear any more of her narratives about what really happened.She seemed to desire to go on to state me those over and over and I remember merely experiencing about contaminated, like, you know, like I was abused. You know? And so I set bounds withher a fter some ace vision about that but tracked her in a different way.It hink it has an impact. I m merely non certain of what ( a squoted in Bell,1998 ) In the past 10 old ages, the emotional impact of working with trauma subsisters has been examined under several concepts: compassion weariness ( Figley, 1995 ) , secondary traumatic emphasis ( Figley, 1993 ; Stamm, 1995 ) , and vicarious injury ( McCann A ; Pearlman, 1990b ; Pearlman A ; Saakvitne, 1995a, 1995b ) . These concepts have been compared and debated ( Pearlman A ; Saakvitne, 1995a ; Stamm, 1995 ) , and a full treatment of them is outside the range of this article. The bulk of the empirical surveies in this country have used the vicarious injury concept. For this ground, the term vicarious injury will by and large be used throughout this article unless another term has been used specifically in the research cited. Vicarious injury has been defined as the transmutation that occurs in the interior experience of the healer [ or worker ] that comes approximately as a consequence of empathetic battle with clients injury stuff ( Pearlman A ; Saakvitne, 1995a, p. 31 ) . Vicarious injury can ensue in physiological symptoms that resemble posttraumatic emphasis reactions, which may attest themselves either in the signifier of intrusive symptoms, such as flashbacks, night-mares, and obsessional ideas, or in the signifier of constricting symptoms, such as numbing and disassociation ( Beaton A ; Murphy, 1995 ) . It may besides ensue in breaks to of import beliefs, called cognitive scheme, that persons hold about themselves, other people, and the universe ( McCann A ; Pearlman, 1990b ; Pearlman A ; Saakvitne, 1995a, 1995b ) , as in the undermentioned illustration from a immature worker in a beat-up adult females s shelter: I think you see the worst of people, working here the worst of what people do to each other. And I think when you do nt hold proper resource halt rocess that, to work through it, to underst and it or set it in some sort of context, it merely leaves you experiencing a small baffle dabout what s traveling on out at that place, and the manner things work in the universe and your function in all of that. ( asquotedin Bell,1999, p.175 ) Although some of the numbing symptoms of vicarious injuries bear some resemblance to burnout and may in fact consequence in burnout over clip, research on healers has besides begun to set up vicarious injury as a distinguishable construct from burnout ( Figley, 1995 ; Pearlman A ; Saakvitne, 1995a ) . Unlike the concept of burnout, the concept of vicarious injury was developed from and is clinically grounded in injury theory, specifically constructivist self-development theory ( McCann A ; Pearlman, 1990b ) . In several surveies, burnout and general emph asis degrees were non related to exposure to traumatized clients, whereas steps of injury exposure and vicarious injuries were related ( Kassam-Adams, 1995 ; Schauben A ; Frazier, 1995 ) . Therefore, burnout entirely does non look to capture the effects of injury as an occupational stressor. Although vicarious injury may show with elements of emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation, and reduced personal achievement, it besides has effects that are alone and specific to trauma work. Many professionals risk vicarious injuries through their contact with traumatized people or stuff that contains in writing images of injury. Surveies have indicated that about 38 % of societal workers experience moderate to high degrees of secondary traumatic emphasis ( Cornille A ; Meyers, 1999 ; Dalton, 2001 ) . In add-on, exigency workers ( Leseca, 1996 ; McCammon, Durham, Allison, A ; Williamson, 1988 ; Wagner, Heinrichs, A ; Ehlert, 1998 ) , nurses ( Joinson, 1992 ) , police officers ( Follette, Polusny, A ; Milbeck, 1994 ) , sexual assault counsellors ( Johnson A ; Hunter, 1997 ; Regehr A ; Cadell, 1999 ; Schauben A ; Frazier, 1995 ) , child protective service workers ( Cornille A ; Meyers, 1999 ) , and trauma healers ( Chrestman, 1995 ; Follette et al. , 1994 ; Kassam-Adams, 1995 ; Pearlman A ; Mac Ian, 1995 ) have all been documented as developing symptomology rather similar to acute and posttraumatic emphasis reactions as a consequence of their second-hand exposure to traumatic stuff. Recent surveies of injury healers have begun to research some of the factors involved in the development of vicarious injury. Therapist exposure to traumatic client stuff has been found to be an of import forecaster for symptoms of traumatic emphasis and, in some instances, of disrupted beliefs about ego and others. In a study of 148 counsellors, Schauben and Frazier ( 1995 ) found that those who worked with a higher per centum of sexual force subsisters reported more symptoms of pos ttraumatic emphasis upset and greater breaks in their beliefs about themselves and others than did counsellors seeing fewer subsisters. The research workers tied these symptoms of trauma counsellors to a figure of factors. Most normally, counsellors said that hearing the trauma narrative and sing the hurting of subsisters was emotionally run outing. Second, many counsellors felt that the guidance procedure was more hard when working with trauma subsisters, who tended to hold more jobs swearing and working in a curative relationship than clients who were non traumatized. Finally, some counsellors found the work more hard because of the institutional barriers within the legal, and mental wellness systems that their clients were forced to voyage. Similar findings emerged when research workers compared the emphasis degree of sexual assault counsellors with that of counsellors who worked with a more general client population ( Johnson A ; Hunter, 1997 ) . Not merely did sexual assault c ounsellors show greater grounds of emphasis, but their work emphasis besides contributed to personal relationship troubles at place. The impact of the healer s ain history of maltreatment on current study of vicarious injuries are ill-defined. Pearlman and MacIan ( 1995 ) reported significantly more vicarious injury symptoms in 60 % of the healers they surveyed who reported a personal history of injury. However, Schauben and Frazier ( 1995 ) found that counsellors with a history of victimization were non more hard-pressed by working with subsisters than were counsellors without such a history. Pearlman and Mac Ian found that healers without a trauma history were more likely to describe intrusive imagination than those with a history. Follette et Al. ( 1994 ) found that mental wellness professionals with a important history of childhood physical or sexual maltreatment did non see significantly more negative responses to child sexual maltreatment subsister clients than those without s uch a history. They besides reported significantly more positive header schemes. However, the comparing group of jurisprudence enforcement forces with childhood maltreatment histories who besides worked with sexual maltreatment subsisters showed significantly more hurt than the mental wellness professionals. The research workers hypothesized that the usage of personal therapy by 59.1 % of the mental wellness professionals versus 15.6 % of the jurisprudence enforcement professionals may hold accounted for the difference. Increased clip spent with traumatized clients seems to increase the hazard of stress reactions in mental wellness professionals ( Chrestman, 1995 ; Pearlman A ; Mac Ian, 1995 ) . Furthermore, disbursement clip in other work activities decreases the hazard. Having a more diverse caseload with a greater assortment of client jobs and take parting in research, instruction, and outreach besides appear to intercede the effects of traumatic exposure. Age and experience are reciprocally correlated with the development of vicarious injury. Younger and less experient counsellors exhibit the highest degrees of hurt ( Arvay A ; Uhlemann, 1996 ; Pearlman A ; Mac Ian, 1995 ) . They may hold had less chance to incorporate traumatic narratives and experiences into their belief systems, every bit good as to develop effectual header schemes for covering with the effects of vicarious injury than hold older and more experient healers ( Neumann A ; Gamble, 1995 ) . Such was the instance of this experient counsellor who worked with beat-up adult females in the tribunal system: It hink for person who does nt make this type of work it would be utmost lystressful, but after twelve old ages, I ve merely I ve handled so many instances and dealt with so many people, I know my restriction sand the tribunal s restrictions and I merely do nt acquire as worked up about each instance as I used to. ( as quoted in Bell, 1999, p.117 ) vicarious injury can be considered a type of occupational jeopardy in scenes where there are high degrees of traumatized clients. As a consequence, organisations supplying services to trauma victims have a practical and ethical duty to turn to this hazard. Deductions for Agency Administrative Response The primary focal point of treatment about the bar of vicarious injury has been on the person ( for a good sum-up, see Yassen, 1995 ) . However, as with burnout, the organisational context of injury work has been discussed as a factor in the development of secondary injury. Several writers have written about their ain experiences in bureaus that serve traumatized persons. They have suggested both bar and intercession schemes in the countries of organisational civilization, work load, work environment, instruction, group support, supervising, and resources for self-care. Each of these will be discussed in bend below. Organizational Culture The values and civilization of an organisation set the outlooks about the work. When the work includes contact with injury, they besides set the outlooks about how workers will see injury and trade with it, both professionally and personally. Of primary concern is that organisations that serve trauma subsisters, whether colza crisis centres, shelters for beat-up adult females, or plans that work with veterans, acknowledge the impact of injury on the single worker and the organisation. As Rosenbloom, Pratt, and Pearlman ( 1995 ) wrote of their work at the Traumatic Stress Institute, We work together to develop an ambiance in which it is considered inevitable to be affected by the work ( p. 77 ) . It is non uncommon for feelings and reactions generated by injury to go forth the societal worker experiencing uneffective, unskilled, and even powerless. An organisational civilization that normalizes the consequence of working with trauma subsisters can supply a supportive environment f or societal workers to turn to those effects in their ain work and lives. It besides gives permission for societal workers to take attention of themselves. Yassen ( 1995 ) provided an illustration of a potentially harmful norm that can thwart workers efforts at self-care: In some scenes, it may be assumed that if employees do non work overtime, they are non committed to their work, or that clinicians who do non take holidaies are more committed to their work than are others ( p. 201 ) . A supportive organisation is one that non merely allows for holidaies, but besides creates chances for societal workers to change their caseload and work activities, take clip off for unwellness, take part in go oning instruction, and do clip for other self-care activities. Small bureaus might signal their committedness to staff by doing staff self-care a portion of the mission statement, understanding that finally it does impact client attention. Administrators might besides supervise staff hol iday clip and promote staff with excessively much accumulated clip to take clip off. Self-care issues could be addressed in staff meetings, and chances for go oning instruction could be circulated to staff. In societal work bureaus, which typically operate with unequal resources and grim service demands, such committednesss, irrespective of how little, are non inconsequential. Workload Research has shown that holding a more diverse caseload is associated with reduced vicarious injury ( Chrestman, 1995 ) . Such diverseness can assist the societal worker maintain the traumatic stuff in position and forestall the formation of a traumatic worldview ( Pearlman A ; Saakvitne, 1995a ) . Agencies could develop intake processs that attempt to administer clients among staff in a manner that pays attending to the hazard of vicarious injury certain clients might show to workers. When possible, trauma instances should be distributed among a figure of societal workers who possess the necessary accomplishments ( Dutton A ; Rubinstein, 1995 ; Regehr A ; Cadell, 1999 ; Wade et al. , 1996 ) . In add-on, societal workers whose primary occupation is to supply direct services to traumatized people may profit from chances to take part in societal alteration activities ( Regehr A ; Cadell, 1999 ) . Agencies that do non already supply such services might see supplying community instru ction and outreach or working to influence policy. Such activities can supply a sense of hope and authorization that can be stimulating and can neutralize some of the negative effects of trauma work. Organizations can besides keep an attitude of regard ( Pearlman A ; Saakvitne, 1995b, p. 170 ) for both clients and workers by admiting that work with trauma subsisters frequently involves multiple, long-run services. Organizations that are proactive in developing or associating clients with accessory services such as self-help groups, experienced medical professionals for medicine, in- and out-patient hospitalization, and resources for paying for these services will back up non merely clients, but besides decrease the work load of their staff ( Pearlman A ; Saakvitne, 1995b ) . Developing coactions between bureaus that work with traumatized clients can supply material support and forestall a sense of isolation and defeat at holding to travel it entirely. Work Environment A safe, comfy, and private work environment is important for those societal workers in scenes that may expose them to violence ( Pearlman A ; Saakvitne, 1995b ; Yassen, 1995 ) . Some work sites, such as shelters or bureaus located in high-crime vicinities, are so unsafe that workers may really see primary injury, instead than vicarious injury. In a sample of 210 accredited societal workers, Dalton ( 2001 ) found that 57.6 % had been threatened by a client or member of a client s household, and 16.6 % had been physically or sexually assaulted by a client or member of the client s household. Being threatened by a client or a member of a client s household was strongly correlated with compassion weariness. Although it is more of a challenge in certain scenes, protecting workers safety should be the primary concern of bureau disposal. Paying for security systems or security guards may be a necessary cost of making concern for some bureaus that provide services to traumatized persons. F ailing that, bureaus may see developing a brother system for coworkers so that if one worker is threatened by a client, another can cite the constabulary. In add-on to attending to basic safety, Pearlman and Saakvitne ( 1995b ) have suggested that workers need to hold personally meaningful points in their workplace. These can include images of their kids or of topographic points they have visited, scenes of nature or quotes that help them retrieve who they are and why they do this work. One hotline worker described her usage of such an point: When itsare alintense call, I sort of intuition over the phone and sort of similar focal point here on my [ computing machine screen ] and I some times try to consciously state my ego to sit back and expression at one of my images that I have up to remind me of happier times. ( asquotedin Bell,1998 ) Agency decision makers can promote staff to do these little investings in their work environment. By puting animating postings or images of scenic environments ( instead than bureau regulations and ordinances ) in the waiting suites, staff meeting suites, and interruption suites, the organisation can pattern the importance of the personal in the professional. In add-on, workers besides need topographic points for remainder at the occupation site, such as a interruption room that is separate from clients ( Yassen, 1995 ) . With a infinite such as this, the organisation could turn to the self-care demands of staff by supplying a java shaper, soft music, and comfy furniture. Education Trauma-specific instruction besides diminishes the potency of vicarious injury. Information can assist persons to call their experience and supply a model for understanding and reacting to it. Training scenes, such as schools of societal work, have a duty to supply this information to field housemans come ining arrangements where they will meet injury ( Pearlman A ; Saakvitne, 1995b ) . Dalton ( 2001 ) found that societal workers with maestro s grades had lower degrees of secondary traumatic emphasis compared with those with baccalaureate grades. This difference suggests that the type of clinical preparation available in maestro s plans, such as information about client authorization, self-care, and acknowledging destructive behaviours, may be a losing but of import portion of developing societal workers in baccalaureate plans to forestall secondary emphasis and vicarious injury. Attempts to educate staff about vicarious injuries can get down in the occupation interview ( Urquiza, W yatt, A ; Goodlin-Jones, 1997 ) . Agencies have a responsibility to warn appliers of the possible hazards of trauma work and to measure new workers resiliency ( Pearlman A ; Saakvitne, 1995b ) . New employees can be educated about the hazards and effects associated with injury, as new and inexperient workers are likely to see the most impact ( Chrestman, 1995 ; Neumann A ; Gamble, 1995 ) . Ongoing instruction about injury theory and the effects of vicarious injuries can be included in staff preparation ( Regehr A ; Cadell, 1999 ; Urquiza et al. , 1997 ) and discussed on an on-going footing as portion of staff meetings. Agencies can take advantage of the booming figure of workshops on vicarious injury at professional conferences in societal work and other subjects by directing a staff member for preparation and inquiring that worker to portion what he or she has learned with the remainder of the staff. This information provides a utile context and helps societal workers to exper ience more competent and have more realistic outlooks about what they can carry through in their professional function. Preparation for a nerve-racking event, when possible, protects persons from the consequence of emphasis ( Chemtob et al. , 1990 ) . Learning new ways to turn to clients injury may besides assist prevent vicarious injury. Theories, such as constructivist self-development theory ( McCann A ; Pearlman, 1990a ) on which the theory of vicarious injury is based, maintain a double focal point between past injury and the client s current strengths and resources. Working from a theoretical model that acknowledges and enhances client strengths and focal points on solutions in the present can experience authorising for client and worker and cut down the hazard of vicarious injury. Group Support Both the burnout literature and the Hagiographas about vicarious injuries emphasize the importance of societal support within the organisation ( Catherall, 1995 ; Munroe et al. , 1995 ; Rosenbloom et al. , 1995 ) . Staff opportunities to debrief informally and process traumatic stuff with supervisors and equals are helpful ( Horwitz, 1998 ; Regehr A ; Cadell, 1999 ; Urquiza et al. , 1997 ) . Critical incident emphasis debriefing ( Mitchell, 1983, as cited in Wollman, 1993 ) is a more formalistic method for treating specific traumatic events but may be less helpful in pull offing insistent or chronic traumatic stuff ( Horwitz, 1998 ) . Support can besides take the signifier of coworkers aid with paperwork or exigency backup. Time for societal interaction between coworkers, such as observing birthdays or other events every bit good as organized team-building activities and staff retreats, can increase workers feeling of group coherence and common support. Peer support groups may ass ist because equals can frequently clear up co-workers penetrations, listen for and right cognitive deformations, offer perspective/reframing, and relate to the emotional province of the societal worker ( Catherall, 1995 ) . Group support can take a assortment of signifiers, such as audience, intervention squads, instance conferences, or clinical seminars, and can be either peer led or professionally led. For illustration, shelter workers interviewed by Bell ( 1999 ) started a reading group and together read and discussed Pearlman and Saakvitne s ( 1995a ) book, Trauma and the Therapist: Countertransference and Vicarious Traumatization in Psychotherapy With Incest Survivors. The group met after work on a regular footing. Group members learned about vicarious injuries and ways to cover with it in their ain work and lives. The group cost the bureau nil, did non interfere with work, and provided an chance for workers to give each other much-needed support. Regardless of the signifier g roup support takes, Munroe et Al. ( 1995 ) warned that it should be considered an adjunct to, non a replacement for, self-care or clinical supervising. There are some possible booby traps of group support. One is the inclination toward groupthink and conformance ( Munroe et al. , 1995 ) . Another is that members hearing about a coworker s hurt may utilize distancing and victim-blaming as a defence mechanism. Peer groups and intervention squads besides offer the chance for traumatic reenactments, such as dividing the group members into the functions of user and exploited, that are so common in working with trauma subsisters ( Munroe et al. , 1995 ) . When groups are held within bureaus, there is besides the possible job generated by conflicting functions in the group, such as a supervisor who is both protagonist and judge or a coworker/supervisor who is besides a friend. Finally, group members may be more instead than less traumatized by the necessity of hearing each other s worst horror narratives. Guzzino and Taxis ( 1995 ) have suggested a figure of ways for members of such groups to speak about their experiences without farther traumatising group members through the usage of psychodrama and art therapy. To farther minimise the potency for jobs in support groups, Catherall ( 1995 ) has suggested that group members discuss such a possibility before it happens and normalise the experience of vicarious injury and its impact on the person and the group. Supervision Effective supervising is an indispensable constituent of the bar and healing of vicarious injury. Responsible supervising creates a relationship in which the societal worker feels safe in showing frights, concerns, and insufficiencies ( Welfel, 1998 ) . Organizations with a hebdomadal group supervising format set up a locale in which traumatic stuff and the subsequent personal consequence may be processed and normalized as portion of the work of the organisation. As one hotline worker said of the value of supervisory support in response to a nerve-racking call: It s sort of like you have this large poke of stones and every clip you sort of Tell person about it you can, you know, give them a twosome of your stones and your poke gets lighter ( as quoted in Bell, 1998 ) .Effective supervising is an indispensable constituent of the bar and healing of vicarious injury. Responsible supervising creates a relationship in which the societal worker feels safe in showing frights, concerns, a nd insufficiencies ( Welfel, 1998 ) . Organizations with a hebdomadal group supervising format set up a locale in which traumatic stuff and the subsequent personal consequence may be processed and normalized as portion of the work of the organisation. As one hotline worker said of the value of supervisory support in response to a nerve-racking call: It s sort of like you have this large poke of stones and every clip you sort of Tell person about it you can, you know, give them a twosome of your stones and your poke gets lighter ( as quoted in Bell, 1998 ) . In add-on to supplying emotional support, supervisors can besides learn staff about vicarious injury in a manner that is supportive, respectful, and sensitive to its effects ( Pearlman A ; Saakvitne, 1995b ; Regehr A ; Cadell, 1999 ; Rosenbloom et al. , 1995 ; Urquiza et al. , 1997 ) . If at all possible, supervising and rating should be separate maps in an organisation because a concern about rating might do a worker relucta nt to convey up issues in his or her work with clients that might be signals of vicarious injury. Dalton ( 2001 ) found that 9 % of the discrepancy in her survey of societal workers and secondary traumatic emphasis was related to supervising. Her consequences indicated that the figure of times a worker received nonevaluative supervising and the figure of hours of nonevaluative supervising were positively related to low degrees of secondary traumatic emphasis. In state of affairss where supervisors can non divide the supervisory and appraising maps, bureau decision makers might see undertaking with an outside adviser for trauma-specific supervising on either an single or group footing. The cost of such preventative audience might be good worth the cost nest eggs that would ensue from decreased employee turnover or ineffectualness as a consequence of vicarious trauma.In add-on to supplying emotional support, supervisors can besides learn staff about vicarious injury in a manner that i s supportive, respectful, and sensitive to its effects ( Pearlman A ; Saakvitne, 1995b ; Regehr A ; Cadell, 1999 ; Rosenbloom et al. , 1995 ; Urquiza et al. , 1997 ) . If at all possible, supervising and rating should be separate maps in an organisation because a concern about rating might do a worker reluctant to convey up issues in his or her work with clients that might be signals of vicarious injury. Dalton ( 2001 ) found that 9 % of the discrepancy in her survey of societal workers and secondary traumatic emphasis was related to supervising. Her consequences indicated that the figure of times a worker received nonevaluative supervising and the figure of hours of nonevaluative supervising were positively related to low degrees of secondary traumatic emphasis. In state of affairss where supervisors can non divide the supervisory and appraising maps, bureau decision makers might see undertaking with an outside adviser for trauma-specific supervising on either an single or group footing. The cost of such preve
Wednesday, February 26, 2020
Audience Analysis - Essay Example In defining a certain audience, detailed consideration of their culture, age, values, beliefs, background knowledge, or assumptions on the subject is fundamental. It ensures an appropriate tone, style, language, and content in passing the information. Thus, demographics, dispositions, and knowledge of the topic are the basis of an audience analysis. My audience entails all Hawaii residents who reside in the islands of Oahu, Kauai, and Maui. Addressing this audience is very significant since they are the main beneficiaries of the project and possible victims of the environmental problems it may cause. The will economically benefit from cheap and quick transport across the shores and the environmental and economical effects associated with the project will influence their lives since they are immediate to the shores. As such, an environmental assessment of the project will suit them and call for their action. They assume that the ferry will jeopardize their occupation. They also love their indigenous plants and animals. Hence, they fear that the emissions, effluents, and solid wastes from the ferry will kill their indigenous plants and animals. Actually, Nene,Ã a large goose is Hawaiis state bird (Pacific island Travel Web). They prefer less of technology and enjoy their good life. Hence, they disregard the ferry. The Hawaii residents have fear that the ferry will cause traffic at the port and severely affect the whales. Hawaii residents also venture in agriculture where they grow coffee beans, bananas, andÃ macadamiaÃ nuts. The tourist business is Hawaiis largest source of outside income and hence they treat the islands with utmost care. They celebrate cultural events and canoe races. Traditional Hawaiian Islands residents have a diverse traditional culture and customs which they seek to maintain and celebrate. English and Hawaii are the most dominant languages in
Monday, February 10, 2020
Industry Analysis Paper - Assignment Example Competitive advantage is also taken for improving organizational performance and then it enables the company to return in asset and increase sales. Researchers argue that competitive advantage is able to predict the variance in the performance of a business and then explain the organizational consequences (Ismail, Rose, Uli & Abdullah, 2011). It is moreover the representation of a major determinant of corporate success or failure, if an organization is not capable to analyze its competitorsÃ¢â¬â¢ strengths, weaknesses and strategies. This inability leads to the suboptimal performance in business (Sohel, Rahman & Uddin, 2014). For that purpose, analyzing the competitors is the critical need for the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s strategy formulation and implementation of its competitive advantage. In the recent decades there appeared new techniques that help to formulate and implement strategy. Some of the popular is the Five Forces of Porter. In the following report, such analysis will be impose d to the well-known brands, companies with the world name, a Swedish multinational retail-clothing company H&M (Hennes & Mauritz) and Spanish clothing and accessories retailer Zara. The report will analyze and contrast the competitive strategy of these two companies and develop a competitive profile for each business. H&M is a Sweden-based company that operates in forty countries of the world and is known for such brands as H&M, COS, Weekday, Monki, Cheap Monday and Other Stories. The company sells products online through catalogue in Austria, Denmark, Germany, Norway, Finland and the UK. The recent launched store in U.S. (in 2013), the company has expanded its online operations to Australia (Business profile, 2015). According to H&M Group income statement, consolidated statement of comprehensive income (H&M Annual report, 2013), the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s profit for 2012 was estimated in $ 16,867 m, while in 2013
Thursday, January 30, 2020
Pro Capital Punishment Essay According to my research there are some people who believe the death penalty is right just because it is safer to end one condemned life than to risk the lives of other innocent people. The death penalty is most commonly legal only for the most extreme cases, such as premeditated murder. Even in the event of murder, out of the 15,000 committed each year, we are only now reaching the 1,000 execution mark after thirty years! This plainly shows that those who may be pro capital punishment still use it sparingly. Also backing up the belief for using capital punishment are numerous stories of murderers who, after being released from prison, simply killed again. One such account reads, Ã¢â¬Å"In 1985, 13-year-old Karen Patterson was shot to death in her bed in North Charleston, S.C. Her killer was a neighbor who had already served 10 years of a life sentence for murdering his half-brother Charles in 1970. The murderer, Joe Atkins, cut the Pattersons phone lines, then entered bearing a machete, a sawed-off shotgun, and a pistol. Karens parents were chased out of their home by Atkins. Karens mom ran to the Atkins home nearby, where Joe then murdered his adopted father, Benjamin Atkins, 75, who had worked to persuade parole authorities to release Joe from the life sentence.Ã¢â¬ Other accounts show that a life sentence simply is not always enough to stop a person from repeating their crimes. Ã¢â¬Å"In 1965, Robert Massie murdered mother of two Mildred Weiss in San Gabriel, Calif., during a follow-home robbery. Hours before execution, a stay was issued so Massie could testify against his accomplice. Massies sentence was commuted to life when the Supreme Court halted executions in 1972. Receiving an undeserved second chance, Massie was paroled, but eight months later robbed and murdered businessman Boris Naumoff in San Francisco.Ã¢â¬ From a religious standpoint a religion that does endorse capital punishment under certain circumstances is Islam. According to the QuÃ¢â¬â¢ran in AlÃ¢â¬â¢ MaÃ¢â¬â¢idah 5:33 Ã¢â¬Å"The punishment of those who wage war against Allah and His messenger and strive to make corruption (Fasad) in the land is only this, that they should be murdered or crucified or their hands and their feet should be cut off on opposite sides or they should be banished from the land; this shall be as a disgrace for them in this world, and in the hereafter they shall have a grievous chastisementÃ¢â¬ This shows that they believe in the death penalty for those who simply cause corruption or bring disgrace upon Islam, especially if the perpetrator is a former Muslim. The other justification for the death penalty, according to Islam, is murder. If anyone kills a person unless it be for murder or for spreading mischief in the land it would be as if he killed all people. And if anyone saves a life, it would be as if he saved the life of all people (Quran 5:32). This obviously states that murderers should undergo the same penalty as the crime they commited. My personal beliefs about capital punishment are fairly in the middle of the road. On the one hand I do not believe it is sinful for criminals to be put to death, as the Bible clearly endorsed the idea in the Old Testament In Genesis 9:6 it says Ã¢â¬Å" Whoso sheddeth manÃ¢â¬â¢s blood, by man shall his blood be shed: for in the image of God made he man.Ã¢â¬ The New Testament of course contains more of the Ã¢â¬Å"graceÃ¢â¬ approach and therefore I tend to lean more that way. Although even in the New Testament the Bible states in Romans 13: 4 Ã¢â¬Å" For he ( the police, judges, etc.) is the minister of God to thee for good. But if thou do that which is evil, be afraid; for he beareth not the sword in vain, a revenger to execute wrath upon him that doeth evil.Ã¢â¬ Clearly this endorses capital punishment for evildoers. On the other hand, people in America are judged as guilty by a group of people who do their best but can hardly be 100% sure on their verdict. Human error may cause and no doubt has caused some innocent people to be condemned to death while some of the guilty roam free among us. That makes me uneasy, and is very disturbing. But is that a legitimate reason to do away with the death penalty? That is a hard question to answer, but I believe the answer is no. I believe there are certain cases where capital punishment is absolutely necessary, but I have to say that I would not want to be the one who makes that decision. How do you judge which life is more valuable than another? The other question has to do with whether or not capital punishment is truly a deterrent to others from committing crimes. There are strong arguments on both sides of that question but it is hard to judge when because of the appeals process and other delays and red tape, only a small percentage of those sentenced ever get put to death. I refer back to the fact that only about 1000 people have been executed during the last 30 years when there have been nearly half a million murders in America! So the argument that capital punishment is not a deterrent to crime carries no weight to me. Therefore, it is still my personal belief that capital punishment should be used, with discretion, after a fair trial, and in certain cases, but I also believe that once the decision has been made, it should be executed with much greater speed. Death row shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be a mile long. I believe that once the judge has given the sentence, there should be a much faster process to the day of execution. I hate the thought of an innocent person being executed, but even worse are the hundreds of thousands of victims who are left without feeling that justice was done for their loved ones and the millions who are at risk because of the leniency of our justice system. My partner and I got along quite well. We had an easy time discussing our material and he was not difficult to deal with. He spent the time given researching, and kept in touch with me to review our presentations. When we met the next day, he was there at the time agreed upon and +wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t full of complaints, which I appr eciate. Brandon is a good partner and I would work with him again.
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
El hombre, desde su surgimiento ha disfrutado de las riquezas de la naturaleza, pero en esos momentos no las afectaba en un grado considerable. En las etapas posteriores del desarrollo de la sociedad humana fue creciendo la capacidad del mismo de modificar su medio ambiente, y consecuentemente, se presentÃ ³ la necesidad de salvaguardar la naturaleza de los efectos nocivos de esta actividad. El impacto ambiental es el efecto que produce la actividad humana sobre el medio ambiente. El concepto puede extenderse a los efectos de un fenÃ ³meno natural catastrÃ ³fico. TÃ ©cnicamente, es la alteraciÃ ³n de la lÃ nea de base ambiental. Los recursos naturales se encuentran amenazados en todos los sentidos. El agua, el suelo y el aire son recursos que estÃ ¡n siendo afectados por acciones sin estudios previos que permitan mitigar estos impactos. La minimizaciÃ ³n del impacto ambiental es un factor importante en los estudios de cualquier proyecto que se quiera llevar a cabo. Con esto se puede lograr que los efectos secundarios sean positivos, o menos negativos. En estos dÃ as que estÃ ¡ tan de moda hablar de sostenibilidad y de cÃ ³mo las empresas grandes y pequeÃ ±as se vinculan con la comunidad y el ambiente, es importante repasar estos conceptos para tener claro cuÃ ¡les son los aspectos medulares que definen una empresa sostenible. Sostenibilidad se puede definir como el uso equilibrado y responsable de los recursos naturales de manera que se pueda dar el desarrollo econÃ ³mico, social y ambiental de una comunidad a muy largo plazo. Las empresas como motores de desarrollo econÃ ³mico tienen una responsabilidad enorme con las comunidades donde estÃ ¡n inmersas y sus metas no solo se limitan a la creaciÃ ³n de empleo y riqueza, sino a la protecciÃ ³n del medio ambiente y ... ... seÃ ±ala para definir si esta es una empresa sostenible, se puede notar su real compromiso ambiental y la conciencia que estos tienen para con el uso de recursos naturales; es mÃ ¡s que obvio, tambiÃ ©n su desarrollo econÃ ³mico, pues la compaÃ ±Ã a logra obtener cantidades industriales de ganancias, obteniendo asÃ gran renombre a nivel mundial. Cabe notar su gran aporte social, primeramente para con sus empleados y la atenciÃ ³n que se les da a estos y a sus familias que toman forma de becas, apoyos financieros, seguridad y beneficios diversos, asÃ como a la sociedad apoyando por medio de fundaciones a las comunidades. El equipo cree que al cumplir con los requisitos antes mencionados, Chrysler cumple las expectativas de ser una empresa sostenible en todos los aspectos y no sÃ ³lo por cumplir, sino por el no conformarse con serlo sino buscar siempre una mejorÃ a en su desarrollo.
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
Ã¢â¬Å"Foreign Direct Investment in Ireland: Policy Implications for Emerging EconomiesÃ¢â¬ is a scholarly journal article which is written by Peter J. Buckley and Frances Ruane of the University of Leeds and Trinity College in Dublin, Ireland. The article is well structured and starts off with an introduction explaining how the important role of multinational enterprises (MNEs) in the global economy relates to issues of how the foreign direct investment (FDI) they control impacts on overall economic activity in the receiving countries. It explains that specific emphasis is centered on how the government can influence FDI policies and thereby attract more of an audience. The journal article focuses the entire paper on the FDI in Ireland because of two primary reasons: 1) because Ireland has consistently promoted export-platform inward investment into the manufacturing sector for over four decades, and 2) MNEs in the Ireland economy now account for fifty percent of manufacturing employment and are the focal point of restructuring of the Irish manufacturing sector over the past twenty years. The introduction then goes on to explain that there are four sections of the paper (the first being the introduction itself). The second section examines literature that emphasizes the selective promotion of MNEs, as well as the DFI policies that have promoted MNEs on a selective basis in Ireland. The third section shows primarily how Ireland has attempted to establish industrial clusters in manufacturing, while the fourth and final section draws out some policy propositions for newly emerging economies, which are based on the Irish policy experience. For the second section of the journal article, it explains that until the 1970s there was pretty much an implication of free mobility of capital across sectors. Then, it explains, the Ã¢â¬ËInternalization SchoolÃ¢â¬â¢ provided a strong connection between MNEs and development in general. In essence, the school argued that developing countries are inexperienced and lack resources, so FDI could essentially help developing countries through capital, technology, and management techniques as well as overall Ã¢â¬Å"know-how. MNEs have far better access to capital from the international banking sector, and this can make a dramatic effect on the development of countries. Technology transfer can also speed up development by Ã¢â¬Å"facilitating the production of goods with higher value-added content by increasing exports and improving efficiency. Ã¢â¬ The article explains that MNEs posses most of the international patents and it would be much easier for developing countries to get access to these resources by inviting and encouraging FDI. The article also points out that MNEs can also play a huge role in teaching the know-how of the newly emerged sector or enterprise to locals in the respective emerging economy. Finally what is also pointed out is that MNEs allow developing countries to penetrate foreign markets because they may make use of worldwide marketing outlets thereby allowing the selling of products where large marketing investments would have otherwise been needed. Ireland starting shifting its policies from high rates of tariff protection and prohibition of FDI towards a free trade policy that comprised of encouragement and incentives for MNEs. More specifically, the incentives were given in the form of generous financial support for capital investment as well as through giving a tax holiday of fifteen to twenty years on the incremental profits generated by export sales. The journal article then goes on to further elaborate on the development of policy in Ireland. It explains that Ireland realized huge benefits in the 1960s because it had very attractive FDI environment. This was furthered by IrelandÃ¢â¬â¢s entry in to the European Community in the 1970s. However, in the 1970s, policy towards FDI became much more selective in Ireland. More specifically, it encouraged investment into the production of high-tech goods by proactively seeking out electronics and pharmaceuticals enterprises and gave higher rates of financial assistance to these high-tech promoted sectors. Another advantage to potential FDI was that there was no opposition or domestic competitors. In formulating this more selective approach, policymakers in Ireland developed a specific system of selectivity for influencing the pattern of MNE investment that was comprised of four stages: (i) finding niche high-value/volume product markets with European growth potential; (ii) identifying enterprises in these markets, which were already exporting large volumes into Europe likely, in terms of the product cycle, to con- sider a European production base; (iii) persuading these enterprises to consider Ireland as an investment base; and (iv) agreeing an incentives package which would both secure the investment and ensure maximum benefit to Ireland as a host country. Since the 1980s, there has been continued evolving in the policy, largely because of limitations set by the EU which ultimately led to the replacement of the original tax holiday with an overall low corporate tax on all profits (trade-neutral). The article then shows how there is a parallel with Ireland concerning China. It explains that China is an attractive location for FDI largely because of its growing domestic industry as well as its low-cost exporting system. It lists a problem that is associated with the aggressive FDI and MNE policy creation that often blocks local private companies from accessing capital thereby cutting them off from export markets. The third section of the journal article discusses the development of clusters in Ireland. It is explained that such development has evolved to be that enterprises now need to take account not only of the presence and costs of traditional factors (such as transport costs and demand levels or patterns), but also of distance-related transaction expenses. There is a lot of theoretical history and implications made from different schools of thought, however this section (and the focus of the article in general) is more concerned with how this relates to Ireland and what developing countries can learn out of it. The article explains that there has always been an Irish effort to induce MNEs to locate in areas of high unemployment and depopulation via financial incentives, however the country only began attempting to build sectorial and spatial clusters since the 1980s. As previously mentioned, they were in two high-tech sectors: electronics and chemicals/pharmaceuticals. Regarding the electronics sector, Ireland was primarily building an electronics cluster to service the European market because the domestic market was not as important. This cluster was built on IrelandÃ¢â¬â¢s attractive MNE incentive reputation as well as by collaborating with its existing network of established MNEs. The initial hope was to attract some key electronics investments and then leverage further MNEs who essentially followed suit from the established key MNEs by also establishing bases in Ireland to keep up with competition. In the 1980s, the article explains, there were four key segments: microprocessors, software, computer products and printers. Namely, Ireland succeeded in attracting two key enterprises: Intel and Microsoft. Their initial hope had paid off soon because Hewlett-Packard followed suit, and then a bunch of other smaller electronics and software enterprises all of which wanted to utilize and link with the larger key enterprises. Regarding the chemical/pharmaceutical sector, Ireland followed much of the same leveraged approach, and got similar results even though this sector was much more footloose. However, there is little evidence of production links between the subsequent and key enterprises as there is in the electronics sector. There is also the subsector of medical devices (mainly in West Ireland) where significant grants can still be granted under EU law. The article explains that this is a much less concentrated sector and thus the average enterprise size is much smaller (unlike the electronics and chemicals/pharmaceuticals enterprises). Within this section of the paper, the author notes that there is a specific parallel with India. The article states that like Ireland, Ã¢â¬Å"India had a switch from a protectionist (and dirigiste) regime to a more open one, this process beginning with the Indian software industry. Ã¢â¬ IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s most successful FDI is the software cluster in Bangalore. The software cluster in India has the support of universities and colleges as well as returning Indian immigrants to strengthen the pool of available skilled labor for these MNEs. As previously mentioned, the fourth and final section of this journal article is all about the implications for FDI policy in newly emerging economies. The article starts off by saying that there are similarities with developing and newly-emerging economies and Ireland in the late 1960s/early 1970s. The article suggests that IrelandÃ¢â¬â¢s strategy is particularly appealing to emerging economies that have no strategic power in trade. Ireland was exceptionally successful in attracting MNE investment in the past decade Ã¢â¬Å"is at least in part due to its consistently positive stance towards MNEs over four decades. The article also says that a key reason why Ireland was so successful was because they see government as assisting rather than constraining them. More specifically, however, the paper lists the following implications that are extracted and gathered from the experiences of the success of the Ireland policy. First, it says Ã¢â¬Å"host countries can never stop being pro-active. Ã¢â¬ There needs to be some serious effort in attracting MNEs. Secondly, Ã¢â¬Å"a package of incentives is superior to a single incentive. This i s based on MNE surveys, which illustrate the fact that they do not prefer single incentives. They prefer a package of incentves. Thirdly, Ã¢â¬Å"host countries should adopt an enterprise-centered approach. Ã¢â¬ This means that host countries need to makes sure that they understand the global strategies of MNEs, not only as it would relate locally and regionally. Fourthly, it contends, Ã¢â¬Å"sectoral direction requires project selectivity. Ã¢â¬ The article explains that many emerging countries are insufficiently selective in attempting to attract MNEs. Other implications include the fact that policy consistency matters to investors Ã¢â¬â that there should not be any room for uncertainty as to an abrupt policy change; the fact that performance-based incentives are a good idea; as well as the fact that projects need to be monitored. That is, clear goals and reporting requirements need to established early on. Now that the summary of the paper has been established, I can now give my own commentary. To begin with, I feel that the paper was well written. It was definitely well organized and cited many references that added credibility to the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s points. I am in agreement that there are huge advantages to attracting foreign direct investment and MNEs. They are especially useful to emerging economies, because as the paper mentioned, I also agree that there are many resources that would otherwise be unavailable. There is the advantage of global marketing, the advantage of penetrating into external markets. There is also the advantage of the MNEs having access to international financing. However, I feel that there are also disadvantages and problems to FDI and enticing MNEs. If incentives are offered to these organizations, it often causes the local businesses and entrepreneurs to either struggle or fail because they are not able to compete. So in order to solve this problem, I feel that there needs to be many factors that are considered before diving into FDI and changing policies to entice MNEs. Among the considerations that I feel should be made is how under-developed the economy is, as well as a plan of how long these incentives should last. If a country is beyond the initial stages and there are solid businesses that are thriving and all that is needed is more growth, I think the country should be careful about introducing MNEs at least in those same sectors of those thriving businesses. That is, because if they are in the same sector, those very businesses that started the economy are likely to fail. Another consideration as I mentioned is how long these incentives should last if implemented. In essence, there should be a moderation of policy in which there attracts healthy investments but also that doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t hurt at home. I also feel that there are other problems with MNEs and FDI in general. For example, when the host country is in dire need of FDI to spur economic growth, they are essentially at the MNEÃ¢â¬â¢s mercy and there are often rules that are broken. For example if a country has environmental protection laws and the MNE breaks them, is the country prepared to enforce the laws, or succumb to the threat of a worsened economy if the MNEÃ¢â¬â¢s leave or are forced out? These issues need to be solved by considering them before any agreements are made. As the article says, proper planning is key to successful MNE recruitment. Other problems are that like in Ireland, the EU might pass laws disallowing certain incentives. These need to be researched to see whether deals can be grandfathered or not (before the passing of the law), otherwise this can prove detrimental to the whole FDI recruitment plan. At times the governments of the host country face issues with foreign direct investment. This is because it has less control over the functioning of the company, as it is functioning as the wholly owned subsidia ry of an overseas company. This has the potential to lead to serious issues. The MNE might not have to be completely submissive to the economic policies of the host country. It is not unheard of that there have been instances of adverse effects on the balance of payments of a country, for example. The solution to these issues is again proper planning and legal strategy. Attorneys well learned in international business law need to be familiar with all aspects of the law in both the host country as well as the MNEÃ¢â¬â¢s home country. Without proper planning, disasters can occur which would undermine the original intent of enticing MNEs and FDI in the first place.
Monday, January 6, 2020
In the class psychology of women, the class viewed the film Makers Project: Women Who Make America. The film supplied background information about how women were treated prior to the WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Movement, as well as during the WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Movement, and after. As a result of the WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Movement there has been a vast amount of changes impacting society. The WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Movement was not just about women, but society as a whole. As a result, there have been a lot of changes to society as a whole. Women and society were impacted by social roles, the media, and the right of women choice. For starters social roles were impacted. Women were now becoming professional tennis players, as well as the battle of the sexes spilled over into homes. As a result, divorce rates increased, and the structure of marriages were changing. Men now had to learn to compromise if they wanted their marriages to last, this included roles both inside and outside of the home. Some women even wrote marriage agreements. Also, men were now able to explore different roles within society. The media also played a role in the WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Movement. For starters there were now shows on television about women who were unmarried with careers, one particular show was called Ã¢â¬Å"That Women.Ã¢â¬ Prior to the WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Movement you would of never seen a show revolved around a womenÃ¢â¬â¢s career path, but instead the typical family where the man of the house goes to work, and comes home to a clean home and dinner on the table that the woman slavedShow MoreRelated Cuban Film Industry Essay1292 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesCuban Film Industry Bennito Mussolini constructed Cinecitta in 1938, the most significant film studio in Europe. Stalin had hi own Private projection. Juan Peron and Mao Zedong shared the fascination, they both married actresses. Francisco Franco was said to have a fantasy of being a movie writer. The leader of the Cuban Revolution follows their footsteps. 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